The Wiener Werkstätte (WW) was an association of “artists and artisans” founded in 1903 based on the ideas and needs of its founders Josef Hoffmann und Koloman Moser, who were also professors at the Viennese School of Arts and Crafts. Together with the first financier Fritz Waerndorf, they would make history with an exceptional company.
The story of the WW often excludes the countless female employees who fell into oblivion. Now, for the first time, they will take center stage again.
Much less famous than the Wiener Werkstätte with its wide range of products is the association Wiener Kunst im Hause (Viennese Art in the Home). It was already founded in 1901 by graduates of the School of Arts and Crafts and existed until the 1930s. In some way, it can be considered the forerunner of the WW.
However, as it was much less well connected economically, it was not able to keep up with the new competition of professors and the wealthy haute bourgeoisie.
Jutta Sika and Therese Trethan together with eight other graduates of the School of Arts and Crafts—five men and three women—founded the association “Wiener Kunst im Hause” and, subsequently, also worked for the Wiener Werkstätte as well as for other notable producers.
Artisan, painter, drawing teacher
Jutta Sika was born in Linz in 1877 and died in Vienna in 1964. Her artistic thirst for knowledge was huge: She attended the Education and Research Institute for Graphics in Vienna and, subsequently, studied at the School of Arts and Crafts with painting classes by Koloman Moser as well as ceramics classes by Friedrich Linke.
The scope of her creative work ranged from designs for porcelain, glass, and metal works to fashion, murals, contributions to exhibitions, and the equipment of a pantomime for an artists’ festival to designs for candy containers and Christmas tree decoration for the pastry shop Demel in the 1930s.
In her later years, she more turned to painting and worked as a drawing teacher. For the WW, she designed seven postcards with motifs from Tirol and a Krampus card.
Artisan, fashion designer, painter, specialist teacher
Therese Trethan was born in Vienna in 1879 where she also died in 1957. She studied at the School of Arts and Crafts for five years and attended architecture classes by Oskar Beyer, painting classes by Koloman Moser, and ceramics classes by Friedrich Linke.
She was a founding member of the “Wiener Kunst im Hause” and worked for the Wiener Werkstätte for five years. In the program of the WW from 1905 she was listed with her initials as the only woman—a great exception and, consequently, proof of her skills as an artisan and her artistic quality.
Among other things, she painted many objects like boxes, wooden eggs, toys, or also screens designed by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser—which might also have been the reason for her to be mentioned in the work program. In any case, it was a sign of great appreciation for Therese Trethan albeit the path towards artistic emancipation was still long. In 1919, she was finally awarded the title of a “specialist teacher for trade training schools,” proof of her dedication to this field.
Before we draw our full attention to the women artists and their work, we first want to go back to the year of 1897: Vienna is the metropolis of a vibrant empire, the city walls belong to the past and have been replaced by the large project of the Ringstraße (ring road).
The transition and radical change are almost within reach, a group of progressive artists and pioneers is turning towards new ideas and ideals, the Vienna Secession is founded, and a new style is being established throughout Europe—Art Nouveau.
The decorative arts would also be reformed and renewed: As of 1899, the first female teachers were appointed to the School of Arts and Crafts and, for the first time, women were allowed to participate in all specialized classes—also in the ever so important life drawing classes.
Hoffmann and Moser, both professors at the school as of 1900, promptly recognized the potential of the female students and, with time, also fostered it—especially because of the quality of their work and their creativity.
Hoffmann and Moser made use of their wealthy financiers as well as of the potential of their male and female students at the School of Arts and Crafts to promote their personal business. As of 1914, the students were mostly female as the men were increasingly drafted into the war. In a time of transition and change, this provoked a lot of critics.
“Mäda! Immediately something split, exaggerated, affected, scribbled, false, phony, and especially unnecessary comes to mind, in one word a product of the WW.
Viennese Women Arts and Crafts, female horror!
The fingering maenads even badger their first names, they fiddle around with them and pick at them until, when all is said and done, they are called Fini, Zoe, Noe, Loe, Gabi, Lydi, Lo, Vally, […] or even Mäda.”
This is what painter and graphic artist Julius Klinger wrote in 1927 reinterpreting the abbreviation of WW as “Viennese Women Arts and Crafts”.
Adolf Loos also had his own interpretation—he titled one of his talks
Apparently men felt threated by so much femininity.
“An outrageously girlie business.”
Architect Oswald Haerdtl wrote.
More than 180 female artists and women, presumably even more, worked for the Wiener Werkstätte. In this exhibition and the catalog, many of them gained visibility through images or texts or their work.
Especially dedicated and outstanding were the
“all-rounders” as we call them:
Teacher of a specialized course, painter, commercial artist, fashion designer, textile and enamel works
Maria Likarz was born in Przemyśl (Poland) in 1893 and died in Rome in 1971. At the age of 18, she received education at the School of Arts for Women and Girls in Vienna. Subsequently, she studied at the School of Arts and Crafts with classes by Josef Hoffmann (architecture), Rosalia Rothansl (textiles), Adele von Stark (enamel), and others.
Already as a student, she began designing postcards for the WW and also her first major contribution to the portfolio Mode Wien 1914/5 took place during this time.
In addition to beaded, leather, and enamel works, she designed a lot of commercial art. More than 200 textile patterns by Likarz have been preserved as well as designs for wallpapers, mostly produced in Cologne, as well as porcelain executed in Vienna.
Furthermore, she headed the fashion department of the WW from 1924 to 1925—she can rightly be called an all-rounder.
Artisan, graphic artist, trade teacher
Mathilde Flögl was born in Brünn (Brno, Czech Republik) in 1893 and died in Salzburg in 1958. She acquired a degree at the Imperial and Royal School for Weaving in Zwittau (Svitavy, Czech Republik) and, subsequently, studied at the School of Arts and Crafts in Vienna where she attended classes by Josef Hoffmann and Adele von Stark.
Her father was the director of the Imperial and Royal School for Textile Industry in Brünn, a fact that most definitely influenced her artistic career.
Already at the age of 21, she participated in the portfolios Mode Wien 1914/5 and Das Leben einer Dame, already revealing her interest in fashion. Her first designs for the WW were so-called war glasses in 1915. One year later she joined the artists’ workshop.
For the anniversary catalogue on the occasion of the 25-year anniversary of the Wiener Werkstätte, she designed the entire graphic concept in 1928. The cover was designed by Vally Wieselthier and Gudrun Baudisch. Her repertoire also included murals and interior design.
After the closure of the Wiener Werkstätte, she opened her own studio for textile patterns and fashion designs. Three years later, Flögel relocated to Czechoslovakia where she worked as a teacher at various schools for weaving and textile industry.
In 1941—still during the war—, she returned to Vienna and became a lecturer at the experimental workshop for the arts and crafts association run by Josef Hoffmann. Here, they continued their close collaboration.
In the 1950s, she taught design and fashion illustration at the Federal School for Female Industries in Salzburg. She mainly dedicated the last years of her life to passing on her knowledge.
Artisan, textile artist, university professor
Felice Rix was born in Vienna in 1893 and died in Kyoto in 1967. After her education at the Education and Research Institute for Graphics, she began studying at the School of Arts and Crafts in 1912 and attended classes for textiles, architecture, and enamel as well as classes for sculpture by Anton Hanak. Already during her studies, she contributed to the portfolios Mode Wien 1914/5 as well as Das Leben einer Dame.
After her studies, she designed war glasses and worked in the artists’ workshop.
In 1918, she and some female colleagues designed the murals in the new WW textile department at Kärntner Straße 32. This was the women artists’ first major collaborative piece of work.
After getting married to architect Isaburo Ueno in 1925, the two relocated to Kyoto. On numerous visits to Vienna, she continued delivering textile designs for the WW also for several years after her move.
However, soon after, her great university career began. She was assigned to teach experimental design at the Institute of Craftsmanship in Takasaki and, afterwards, in Osaka at the Research Institute for Architecture and Industrial Engineering. In the 1950s, she became a professor at the Kyoto City University of Arts. The crowning achievement of her career was the founding of her own private school in 1963—the International Design Institute.
She brought artistic esprit from Vienna to Japan and allowed herself to be inspired by Japanese tradition—a successful symbiosis that turned her into an international artist with a policy of expansion.
Even though most women artists of the Wiener Werkstätte were active in more than one creative field and, besides the design process, mostly cultivated their artisan skills, some do stand out for their innovations, richness in ideas, and business acumen.
Artisan, ceramicist, textile artist
Rose Krenn was born in Slovenia in 1884 and died in Innsbruck in 1970. She studied at the School of Arts and Crafts in Prague and Vienna.
She learned from Michael Powolny (ceramics) and, additionally, she was one of Josef Hoffmann’s few female students to design and realize furniture herself. In her diploma from 1913, Josef Hoffmann wrote very indicatively of the times:
„For a woman, Miss Rosa Krenn has an exceptionally strong sense of form and a firm aptitude for autonomous creation of forms. She is particularly talented with regard to surface decoration and interior design. Her execution of ceramics shows a strong sense of autonomy and a great feeling for materials.”
In 1912, a cigar cabinet based on her design was created for the spring exhibition at the Austrian Museum of Art and Industry (today’s MAK). It was immediately acquired for the collection—a highly rare example of feminine furniture art.
She got married, went to Tyrol, and became a teacher there. For the WW, she designed textile patterns, boxes, Christmas tree decoration, painted Easter eggs, and more for eight years.
Master silversmith, specialist teacher, pioneer
Eilfriede Berbalk was born in Vienna in 1900 and died in Krems in 1987. Her dream of studying architecture didn’t come true as women were not admitted to this course—but she found her calling elsewhere.
She was educated at the School of Arts for Women and Girls and attended the course on metal work by Georg Klimt which prompted her to become a silversmith. At the WW, she was given the opportunity of a 2-year apprenticeship with a subsequent apprenticeship certification exam. She pursued this goal with dedication and graduated with the master craftswoman’s diploma in 1924 as Austria’s first female master silversmith.
Following her pioneering spirit, she founded her own workshop in Vienna’s 18th district where she deliberately only accepted and promoted female apprentices. As a lecturer she later returned to the School of Arts for Women and Girls where she headed the metal class.
Little is known about Klara Posnanski. She was presumably the daughter of a rabbi.
As of 1927, she had her own “workshop for textile refinement based on personal artistic designs.” She developed her own airbrush-printing technique which allowed for a particularly fine color gradient, the so-called ombré effect.
Until 1931, she created approximately 70 textile patterns for the WW which in form and color anticipated the 1960s. After this period, there are no further records of her.
Graphic artist, fashion designer, costume designer—the double specialist
Mela Koehler was born in Vienna in 1885 and died in Stockholm in 1960. Her studies at the School of Arts and Crafts with classes by Koloman Moser (painting) and Rosalia Rothansl (textiles) led the way for her future artistic career and from the beginning fostered her strengths—graphic art and fashion.
She headed a course on aesthetics at women’s trade schools for seamstresses and dressmakers and received a scholarship for Paris, an award that honored her abilities.
Koehler mostly designed fashion and, between 1907 and 1912, more than 150 motifs for postcards and table cards on the subject of fashion for the WW. These highly artistic so-called “Small Works of Art”—it was also possible to purchase frames for them—were an affordable and important medium for advertisement.
In Sweden she systematically continued her work as a graphic artist and fashion designer.
The women artists’ great mentors were mostly the professors and the founders of the WW, Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser. Also a row of other notable people at the School of Arts and Crafts and the company Wiener Werkstätte had major influence on them. Here, one stands out most prominently: Dagobert Peche.
Innovator, visionary, ornament genius
Dagobert Peche was born in St. Michael im Lungau in 1887 and died in Mödling in 1923 at the age of only 36. Following his father’s wishes, he studied architecture at the TU and the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna although he actually wanted to become a painter.
In 1911, he was able to design his first textile patterns for the WW—artistic design, sketching, and drawing were what he was best at. On paper, his imagination and passion for staging and arranging had no limit.
In 1915, Peche’s greatest wish came true—he was employed by the Wiener Werkstätte—and only one year later he was trusted with more responsibilities. He was made in charge of setting up and heading the artists’ workshop.
His approach was to free the decorative object from the requirement of being practical and to view it as a piece of art. This continued to influence artists long after Peche’s early death, which Josef Hoffmann commented with sorrow-stricken words: “Dagobert Peche was Austria’s greatest ornament genius since the baroque era.”
Designer, graphic artist, painter
Koloman Moser was born in Vienna in 1868 and died there in 1918. Following his father’s wishes, he enrolled at the Academy of Economics while secretly taking the entrance exam for the Academy of Fine Arts and finally studying painting there. He had to finance his studies himself which he achieved through numerous illustrations and graphic art works. Committed to implementing new artistic ideas, he became a founding member of the Vienna Secession at the age of 29.
Around 1900, Moser became a professor for painting at the School of Arts and Crafts at the request of Otto Wagner. Teaching made it possible for him and his students to follow new paths. A new, less authoritarian relationship between teacher and students arose. Moser introduced them to important producers and on his initiative the School of Arts and Crafts purchased the first kiln—allowing experiments and production to begin.
In 1903, the Wiener Werkstätte was founded and Moser became intensely dedicated to the fields of decorative arts which he enriched with a lot of imagination and the verve of a painter. His commitment was huge and his will to design unbroken.
In 1905, Moser married his student Ditha Mautner von Markhof.
Soon after, he was no longer able to identify himself with the WW due to the various interferences with his life and his work, often for financial reasons. In 1907, he left the production group. Moser remained a painter and graphic artist for the rest of his life, he was a mentor for an entire generation, and a man of many artistic talents.
Architect, designer, creator of exhibitions
Josef Hoffmann was born in Pirnitz (Brtnice, Czech Republik) in 1870 and died in Vienna in 1956. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts with classes by Otto Wagner. His early years as an artist resemble Koloman Moser’s—the two formed a congenial team: In 1897, founding member of the Secession, around 1900, professor for architecture at the School of Arts and Crafts, and, in 1903, founding of the Wiener Werkstätte. Their vision: the Gesamtkunstwerk—a total work of art!
It was soon implemented—in 1904, the Sanatorium Westend in Purkersdorf was created with a consistent stylistic concept and execution by the craftspeople of the WW. Hoffmann was in charge of the architecture and, together with Moser, also of the interior design. The road to success continued—only one year later they were asked to work on the Stoclet House in Brussels. Here, Gustav Klimt created the mosaic fries in the dining room.
Through his work as a lecturer, Hoffmann motivated and inspired many of his students, he was relentlessly demanding and supportive. Up to his death, Hoffmann worked as an architect and manic designer.
In 1916, Josef Hoffmann assigned Dagobert Peche the task of setting up and heading the artists’ workshop. Its orientation was entirely new: It was to become a kind of experimental space for artists, also for those who were not permanently employed by the WW.
Work space and materials were provided. Artists could come when they wanted and work with the material the WW provided (paint, paper, enamel, ceramic, etc.). If a design or object was accepted by the WW, the artist was able to write an invoice. If a produced object was not purchased by the WW, the artist could pay for it and keep it.
The artists’ workshop was also called “the laboratory of ideas.” There were workshops for ceramic, enamel, and drawing, a studio for silk painting, the textile workshop, as well as a room for the kiln. Also: studios for Josef Hoffmann and Dagobert Peche. The latter was later also used by Maria Likarz.
Marianne Leisching recalls in one of her letters:
„Peche’s studio was full of light and playful with Rococo-like glass boxes, a couch (covered with an ombré blue fabric), flowers, and nice gadgets and WW objects. After his death, Häusler gave this studio to Maria causing great outrage with Ms Primavesi and Flögl (who claimed it for herself). On one of these occasions a fight took place and Maria Likarz even slapped Flögl in the face.”
Artisan, enamel artist, and chronicler
Marianne Leisching was born in Vienna in 1896 and died in Amsterdam in 1971. She inherited the passion for applied art from her father, Eduard Leisching, art historian and director of the ÖMKI (today’s MAK). For four years, she attended classes by Josef Hoffmann and Adele von Stark at the School of Arts and Crafts.
As of 1923, she worked in the artists’ workshop where she mostly designed textile and carpet patterns as well as enamel. She also executed her own enamel works as well as her colleagues’.
Later, her exchange of letters with a colleague turned her into a chronicler of the WW. For example, she reported that the women artists were compensated for each design and were actually not badly paid.
Most women artists of the WW were Josef Hoffmann’s arts and crafts students, including Maria Vera Brunner, Hedwig Denk, Hilda Jesser, Dina Kuhn, Fritzi Löw, Marianne Perlmutter, Mathilde Flögl, Irene von Herget, Lilly Jacobsen, Maria Likarz, Felice Rix, Emmy Rothziegel, Reni Schaschl, Anny Schröder, and Vally Wieselthier.
“When one arrived at the studios in Döblergasse, little was to be seen of the men directing it all […],”
chronicler Hans Ankwicz-Kleehoven wrote. And with regards to the women artists:
“Visiting them at their work places, one would either find them busy at the drawing table with a design for a textile pattern, a lace, or a poster or they were working as ceramicists at the potter’s wheel or on the glaze for the finished form.”
Women played an important role in the artists’ workshop—also in the management. There were not only female heads of workshops but also a woman at the top: Helene Bernatzik headed the entire artists’ workshop for a while.
Due to the traditional role of women and the precarious working conditions within the working class, the first women’s movements arose in the middle of the 19th century which advocated, among other things, women’s suffrage as well as better education for women and girls.
The first state-run school to accept women since its founding in 1867 was the School of Arts and Crafts. For more than 30 years, women were, however, not able to attend courses like architecture, painting, or sculpture, as they were not allowed to join the life drawing classes. They were educated in traditionally “female” fields like decorative painting, enamel works, or lace drawing. This changed in 1899.
A new, self-confident image of women arose around the time of World War I because women had to take over many work tasks from men due to the war. This was also expressed in the appearance of women. Practical work clothes replaced constricting ladies’ fashion, also trousers and short hair—the so-called "Bubikopf" [bob cut]—were popular.
Male attributes were taken over and traditional roles turned upside down. Dressed in an elitist, independent, and extravagant way, holding a cigarette in their hands, women also took on leadership in the Wiener Werkstätte for the first time in the 1920s. Vally Wieselthier was one of them. She headed the ceramics workshop and pursued an international career while her colleague Gudrun Baudisch became famous mostly within the German-speaking world.
Vally Wieselthier is for sure one of the internationally most famous artists and artisans. Born in Vienna in 1895, she later attended the Art School for Women and Girls and the School of Arts and Crafts.
Besides textiles, commercial art, and decorative art, she became particularly well-known as a ceramicist. After leaving the WW in 1922 to found her own ceramics workshop, she sold it to the WW in 1927 and became its head.
In 1929, she went to New York where she founded the association “Contempora” together with American and European artists. In the USA, she continued her vivid artistic work and her participation in exhibitions until her early death in 1945. Especially her ceramic figures, which always portray a modern type of woman, are famous.
Also Gudrun Baudisch was an artisan with a particular focus on ceramics. She was born in Pöls in 1907 and attended the ceramics class at the Federal Academy for Architecture and Decorative Arts in Graz.
Subsequently, she started working at the WW in the design department and was an employee in the ceramics department headed by Vally Wieselthier. In the 1930s she had her own workshop in Vienna and, among others, created several plastic female figures made of terra-cotta for the peristyle of the Presidential Palace in Ankara designed by Clemens Holzmeister.
During the Nazi era, she worked in Germany for the Reichsbaudirektion. Afterwards, she returned to Austria and executed stucco-decoration and architectural works in public buildings such as the Burgtheater or the Festspielhaus Salzburg, as well as in several churches. From the 1960s on, she worked for “Gmundner Keramik.” She died in Hallein in 1982.
In 1932, the Wiener Werkstätte had to file for bankruptcy. The inventory was auctioned and all employees laid off—it was the end of an institution.
Over the course of its 29-year existence, the Wiener Werkstätte was repeatedly confronted with financial crises. The concept of excellent artisan production with high artistic standards was very cost-intensive and required constant support from financiers.
The first financier and co-founder Fritz Waerndorfer was no longer able to compensate the losses after contributing for 11 years and left the company in 1914.
With Otto Primavesi a new supporter was found. He succeeded in continuing the WW under adverse circumstances and even managed to expand. Still in war times, a branch opened in Zurich and in 1922 another followed in New York. But the times after WW I were not easy. Austria had lost its position as a major power and Vienna was no longer a metropolis, the economy only slowly recovered, inflation and unemployment were the consequence. Primavesi ran the enterprise until 1925 when, he too, encountered financial problems.
The Wiener Werkstätte urgently needed to be reformed. Cooperations with other companies were established and in the field of textiles the focus was even placed on the mass market. The discrepancy between consumption and art was, however, a constant controversy within the WW. With the crash of the stock markets in 1929 and the subsequent global economic crisis, the situation became more and more difficult.
In 1930, entrepreneur Alfred Hofmann joined as the last financier. With drastic cost reduction measures, he tried to avert bankruptcy. Uneconomic sections were closed, the WW branches also sold third-party products, but, in the end, all of these measures did not help.
In 1939, the Nazis forced Alfred Hofmann to sell the WW archives way below their value to the State Arts and Crafts Museum (today’s MAK) due to his Jewish background. Alfred Hofmann was able to emigrate to the USA and survived the war. In 1955, an agreement was settled between him and the Museum of Applied Arts and a deed of gift was signed.
Today, the MAK is the rightful owner of the archives and, consequently, an important center of competence for the Wiener Werkstätte and its time.
The focus point Wiener Werkstätte is continuously being updated and expanded by donations, lenders, as well as new research results. The latter especially significantly enriched the exhibition WOMEN ARTISTS OF THE WIENER WERKSTÄTTE.
After a public call and an online publication of all names of “women in the WW” known to us, we were able to establish new relationships and strengthen existing contacts with some descendants. Among others, the descendants of Jutta Sika, Fritzi Löw, or Susi Singer revealed new and surprising information.
The greatest distance was overcome by the descendants of the sisters Anna and Emmy Rothziegel. They contacted us from far away Alaska and were also able to follow the MAK’s call and add some fascinating details.
Many female employees remain of which we know little to almost nothing. The health insurance registrations from the late 1920s in the archive of the WW are the only proof of their existence. Some presumably became victims of the Nazis, others were forced to emigrate. Oftentimes, the descendants know little or not much about their ancestors and their collaboration with the WW. Grete Blatny was one of these. She was born in 1908 and created textile designs—more we do not know of her.
The exhibition WOMEN ARTISTS OF THE WIENER WERKSTÄTTE (5.5.–3.10.2021) at the MAK – Museum of Applied Arts, was curated by Anne-Katrin Rossberg and Elisabeth Schmuttermeier and designed by architect Claudia Cavallar. This MAK.digiSTORY does not claim to be complete. The catalog to the exhibition lists further biographies and scientific work on fascinating topics regarding the women artists and decorative art of the 20th century.
WOMEN ARTISTS OF THE WIENER WERKSTÄTTE
Martha Alber • Mea Angerer • Adele Appoyer • Hilda Ascher • Gudrun Baudisch • Eilfriede Berbalk • Fritzi Berger • Helene Bernatzik • Ilse Bernheimer • Margret Bilger • Charlotte Billwiller • Camilla Birke • Else Birnbacher • Emilie Bittner • Irene Blahy • Grete Blatny • Edith Blau • Hilde Blumberger • Nelly Brabetz • Gertrud Brandt • Maria Vera Brunner • Hertha Bucher • Lotte Calm • Hedwig Denk • Mizzi Donin • Lida Doxat • Brunhilde Dreher • Alice Ehmann • Christa Ehrlich • Lucie Fell • Karoline/Lotte Fink • Alice Fischer • Else Flech • Mathilde Flögl • Gertrude Foges • Beatrix Foltin • Marie Freund • Olga Freund • Eva Frieberger • Mizi Friedmann • Lotte Frömel-Fochler • Helene Gabler • Hermine Ginzkey • Ella Graf • Gabriele Hackl • Marie Händler • F. J. Häsel • Lilly Hahn • Lotte Hahn • Margarete Hamerschlag • Fanny Harlfinger-Zakucka • Bianca Hausig • Irene v. Herget • Clara Herzig • Heddi Hirsch • Leopoldine Hirsch • Maria Hochstetter • Gertrud Höchsmann • Maria Josefa Hödl • Ingrid Ipsen • Sofie Iszkowska • Lilly Jacker • Lilly Jacobsen • Hede Jahn • Hilda Jesser • Helene John • Maria Jungwirth • Margarete Kempf • Adalberta Kiessewetter • Annalise Knapp • Olga Kneiser • Mela Koehler • Leopoldine Kolbe • Erna Kopriva • Valentine Kovačič • Eva Kowarcz • Rose Krenn • Lisa Kümmel • Dina Kuhn • Helene Kurz • Klara Kuthe • Frieda Lagus • Elisabeth Leisching • Marianne Leisching • Anna Lesznai • Maria Likarz • Lizzy Lindner • Melitta Löffler • Fritzi Löw • Marta Loewin • Kató Lukáts • Elena Luksch-Makowsky • Lydia Lunaczek • Paula Lustig • Grete Luzzatto • Louise Eleonore Maaß • Maria Makasy • Valerie Mautzka • Ella Max • Grete May • Maria Mayreder • Johanna Meier-Michel • Gabi Möschl • Ditha Moser • Antonie Mutter • Grete Neuwalder • Gertrude Neuwirth • Rosa Neuwirth • Emilie Niedenführ • Amalie Nowotny • Erna Pamberger • Marianne Perlmutter • Valerie Petter • Camilla Peyrer • Angela Piotrowska • Josefine Podboy • Minka Podhajská • Klara Posnanski • Fritzi Pracht • Maria Pranke • Carmela Prati • Erna Putz • Hertha Ramsauer • Grete Reichle • Margarete Reinold • Felice Rix • Kitty Rix • Anna Rothziegel • Emmy Rothziegel • Ena Rottenberg • Marta Ruben • Juliana Ryšavy • Margarete Sattler • Susanne Sautter • Reni Schaschl • Ilse Schenk • Anna Schmedes • Hedwig Schmidl • Else Schmidt • Maria Schober • Gabriele Schramm-Brisker • Mizzi Schreiner • Anny Schröder • Ida Schwetz-Lehmann • Jutta Sika • Emilie Simandl • Susi Singer • Julia Sitte • Olga Sitte • Camilla Sodoma • Marie Sorer • Luise Spannring • Grete Sperl • Agnes Speyer • Marie Stadlmayer • Eva Stammbusch • Elli Stoi • Luise Stoll • Else Stübchen-Kirchner • Dora Suppantschitsch • Amalie Szeps • Melanie Taussig • Alice Teichtner • Maria Tlusty • Therese Trethan • Maria Trinkl • Emilie Vogelmayer • Mizzi Vogl • Emma Wabak • Getrud Weinberger • Hermine Weiss • Christine Weißenberg • Marie Weißenberg • Vally Wieselthier • Hanna Wintersteiner • Anny Wirth • Marie Wohlmann • Grete Wolf • Marianne Zels • Nora Zuckerkandl • Emmy Zweybrück
The concept for this MAK.digiSTORY was created by Gabriele Fabiankowitsch and Thaddäus Stockert. It was implemented with the help of Simona Reisch and Nikolaus Ruchnewitz.
Translation: Christina Anderson
Textile tableaus: © 3007 Wien, Eva Dranaz, using WW textile patterns from the MAK Collection (© MAK).